Tutorial on Narration.

Tutorial on Narration.

ASSERTIVE: To change into indirect speech—Sub +say/ tell + object+

that +reported subject + verb + extension.

 Ex:       Jebin said, “I am reading a book.”

Indirect: Jebin said that she was reading a book.

 Ex:       The teacher said to me “You are wrong.”

Indirect: The teacher told to me that I was wrong

OPTATIVE: To change into indirect speech—Sub + wish/pray + that

 + Reported speech’s Sub + might + main verb’s extension.

Ex: Father said to me, “May you pass the examination.”

Indirect: Father prayed that I might pass the examination.

Ex: The teacher said to the students, “May Allah blesses you.”

Indirect: The teacher wished that Allah might bless the student.

EXCLAMATORY: To change into indirect speech—Sub +exclaim/ exclaimed with joy/sorrow + that + reported speech’s Sub + verb past form + very/great + adjective + extension.

Ex: The students said, “Hurrah! Our team has won the game.”

Indirect: The students exclaimed with joy that their team had won the


If reported speech begins with HOW/WHAT, to change into indirect

Very, much, great etc will be used.

Ex:          Silvia said, “What a fine bird it is!”

Indirect: Silvia exclaimed with joy that it was a very fine bird.

INTERROGATIVE: To change into indirect speech—Subject + ask / inquire of + object + if / whether + reported speech’s Subject + verb+


Ex: Rona said to his sister, “Will you go to school?”

Indirect: Rona asked his sister if she would go to school.

Ex: Jony said to him, “ Have you taken my pen.”

Indirect: Jony asked him if he had taken my pen.

Sub + ask + object + interrogative pronoun / adverb + reported speech’s Subject + verb + extension.

Ex: He said to me, “Where do you live?”

Indirect: He asked me where I lived.


IMPERATIVE: To change into indirect speech—Sub + request / order /

Advise / tell / object + to + reported speech’s verb + extension.

Ex: He said to me, “Please give me a glass of water.”

Indirect: He requested me to give him a glass of water.

Ex: The captain said to the soldiers, “Fire on.”

Indirect: The captain commanded the soldiers to fire on.

If the sentence is negative, then all rule’s of above will be unchanged

+ Not + to + Extension.

Ex: He said to me, “Don’t do this.”

Indirect: He told me not to do that.

Sub + propose / suggest + that + they/we + should + Reported verb +


Ex: He said to me, “Let us go out for a walk.”

Indirect: He proposed to me that we should go for a walk.


R1. Reporting verb pre.tense,pre.perfect/future tense; Reported verb will


R2. Present indefinite tense change into past indefinite.

R3.  Present continuous tense change into past continuous.

R4. Present perfect tense change into past perfect.

R5. present perfect continuous into past perfect continuous.

R6. past indefinite into past perfect tense.

R7. Shall / Will change into Should / Would, May/Can into Might / Could.


                                                                           Prepared By—

                                                                   MD. Billal Hossain(Foysal).